Key figures on climate
France, Europe and Worldwide


Anthropogenic: related to human activities (industry, agriculture, etc.).

Primary energy mix: for a given geographical area, the breakdown of consumption from different energy sources before they are transformed and made available to users.

UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

CO2 equivalence (CO2eq): method of measuring greenhouse gas emissions that takes into account the warming power of each gas relative to that of CO2; Mt CO2 eq: million tonnes of CO2 equivalent; Gt CO2 eq: billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent.

Fugitive emissions: unintentional emissions, leaks.

Renewable energies (RE): these are energies derived from natural processes that are constantly being renewed. Purely electrical renewables include hydropower, wind power, tidal power and photovoltaic solar energy. Thermal renewables include firewood, incinerated wood and crop residues, incinerated urban and industrial waste of biological origin, biogas, biofuels, solar thermal energy, geothermal energy for heat or electricity, and heat pumps.

ETS: CO2 Emission Trading System (ETS).

GHG: greenhouse gases, gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and man-made, which absorb and re-emit infrared radiation.

IPCC : Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), created by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, responsible for synthesizing scientific work on climate change.

Inventory: the greenhouse gas inventory for a given territory is a table by major sector, presenting emissions in a simple form that can be used by anyone seeking an objective overview. Inventories are produced using the methodological principles defined by the IPCC. The inventories are published on the UNFCCC website.

Annex I and Annex B countries: UNFCCC Annex I countries are made up of developed countries and countries in transition to a market economy. They include the EU, USA, Canada, Australia and Russia, but exclude China and India. With a few exceptions, these countries correspond to those listed in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol, which sets out the quantified commitments with which they must comply.

GDP: gross domestic product. A measure of the wealth created by a country over a period of time. Its measurement in purchasing power parity (PPP) enables comparisons between countries.

GWP: Global Warming Potential. Used to compare the contribution of different greenhouse gases to global warming over a given period. It should be noted that the 100-year GWPs of the various GHGs have varied over the course of the IPCC reports. This is to be expected, since GWPs, which reflect effects compared with those of CO2, are in fact dependent on:

  • concentrations of the various greenhouse gases already present in the atmosphere;
  • the natural cycles of the gases in question, which determine the rate at which they are purified from the atmosphere, and therefore their" lifetime" in the air.

The GWPs used in Parts 2, 3 and 4 to convert CO2, CH4 and N2O data to CO2 eq are based on the 100-year GWPs of the IPCC AR5.

Industrial processes: this category covers greenhouse gas emissions from industrial processes associated with chemical or physical transformations other than energy combustion, such as decarbonation in cement production.

Emissions quota: unit of account in the carbon market system. Represents one tonne of CO2.

Fossil reserves: quantities of oil, gas and coal recoverable from deposits already discovered, based on current economic and technical constraints.

Baseline 2007 scenario : this scenario, prepared for the European Commission by the E3M laboratory of the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems at the National Technical University of Athens, presents projections for the EU energy system up to 2030. It takes into account policies implemented in member states up to the end of 2006.

International bunkers: emissions linked to international air and sea transport.

toe: tonne of oil equivalent. Unit of measurement for energy.

LULUCF: Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry.