datalab
Key figures on climate
France, Europe and Worldwide
2023 EDITION
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Geographical breakdown and trends in GHG emissions

Geographical breakdown of worldwide GHG emissions (excluding LULUCF)

In Mt CO2 eq

1990

2020

2021

2021 share (%)

2020-2021 change (%)

1990-2021 change (%)

North America

7,247

6,997

7,285

13.8

+ 4.1

+ 0.5

Canada

582

727

743

1.4

+ 2.2

+ 27.6

United States

6,199

5,566

5,810

11.0

+ 4.4

- 6.3

Central and South America

1,687

2,769

2,917

5.5

+ 5.4

+ 73.0

Brazil

702

1,297

1,375

2.6

+ 6.1

+ 96.0

Europe and former USSR

11,065

7,638

7,984

15.2

+ 4.5

- 27.8

EU 27

4,991

3,457

3,632

6.9

+ 5.1

- 27.2

Germany

1,237

743

779

1.5

+ 4.9

- 37.0

Spain

299

287

307

0.6

+ 6.9

+ 2.6

France

556

406

429

0.8

+ 5.6

- 22.8

Italy

531

373

395

0.8

+ 6.0

- 25.7

Poland

519

392

416

0.8

+ 5.9

- 20.0

United Kingdom

779

405

420

0.8

+ 3.7

- 46.1

Russia

3,090

2,401

2,570

4.9

+ 7.0

- 16.9

Sub-Saharan Africa

1,277

2,371

2,430

4.6

+ 2.5

+ 90.3

Middle East and North Africa

1,763

4,441

4,643

8.8

+ 4.6

+ 163.4

Saudi Arabia

235

761

775

1.5

+ 1.9

+ 230.1

Asia

8,979

24,565

25,554

48.6

+ 4.0

+ 184.6

China

4,018

14,734

15,266

29.0

+ 3.6

+ 280.0

South Korea

326

685

709

1.3

+ 3.5

+ 117.8

India

1,421

3,560

3,835

7.3

+ 7.7

+ 169.9

Japan

1,316

1,151

1,182

2.2

+ 2.7

- 10.2

Oceania

535

654

648

1.2

- 0.9

+ 21.3

Annex I countries (see glossary)

19,105

15,439

16,112

30.6

+ 4.4

- 15.7

Non-Annex I countries

13,447

33,996

35,351

67.2

+ 4.0

+ 162.9

International aviation bunkers

263

343

395

0.8

+ 15.4

+ 50.6

International marine bunkers

394

707

741

1.4

+ 4.8

+ 88.0

World

33,209

50,485

52,599

100.0

+ 4.2

+ 58.4

Note: international bunkers correspond to emissions from international sea and air transport, which are excluded from national totals (see glossary).
Source: EDGAR, 2022

After the drop in 2020 due to the health crisis, global GHG emissions rose by 4.2% in 2021, exceeding the 2019 level (+0. 5%). This recovery concerns all regions of the world, with the exception of Oceania, due in particular to the continuation of significant sanitary restrictions until the end of the year in Australia and New Zealand. By 2022, global GHG emissions have increased by 1.4% (EDGAR, 2023).

Global GHG emissions between 1970 and 2021

Source: EDGAR, 2022

In 2021, China remains the world's leading GHG emitter (29% of global emissions), ahead of the United States (11%), India (7.3%) and the European Union (6.9%). Between 1990 and 2021, global GHG emissions rose by 58% (+ 19.3 Gt CO2 eq). Over this period, the biggest contributors to this rise were China (+ 280%, or + 11.2 Gt CO2 eq), India(+ 170%, or+2.4 Gt CO2 eq) and the Middle East and North Africa zone (+163%, or+2.9 Gt CO2 eq). Over the same period, emissions in the United States began to fall (-6. 3%); the drop was even more marked for the European Union (-27.2%) and France (-22.8%).

Cumulative CO2 emissions since 1750 by major world region

Note: emissions from fossil carbon combustion (excluding LULUCF and international transport) from 1750 to 2021.
Source: The Global Carbon Project's fossil CO2 emissions dataset, Andrew, Robbie M. & Peters, Glen P., 2022

Since the beginning of the industrial era, Europe and Eurasia have contributed a third and the United States a quarter of cumulative CO2 emissions. Asia now accounts for almost a third of global emissions, and China for 15%.

Worldwide GHG emissions per capita (excluding LULUCF)

In t CO2 eq/capita

1990

2020

2021

2020-2021 change (%)

1990-2021 change (%)

North America

20.2

14.1

14.7

+ 3.8

- 27.4

Canada

21.0

19.1

19.4

+ 1.6

- 7.6

United States

24.8

16.8

17.5

+ 4.2

- 29.5

Central and South America

4.7

5.3

5.5

+ 4.6

+ 17.8

Brazil

4.7

6.1

6.4

+ 5.5

+ 37.8

Europe and former USSR

7.3

4.5

4.7

+ 4.5

- 34.9

EU 27

11.9

7.7

8.1

+ 5.2

- 31.6

Germany

15.6

8.9

9.4

+ 4.8

- 39.9

Spain

7.7

6.1

6.5

+ 6.7

- 15.9

France

9.6

6.0

6.3

+ 5.3

- 33.8

Italy

9.4

6.3

6.7

+ 6.6

- 28.7

Poland

13.6

10.3

11.0

+ 6.4

- 19.2

United Kingdom

13.6

6.0

6.2

+ 3.7

- 53.9

Russia

20.9

16.7

17.9

+ 7.5

- 14.2

Sub-Saharan Africa

2.4

2.0

2.0

- 0.1

- 16.6

Middle East and North Africa

5.3

7.5

7.7

+ 3.3

+ 45.5

Saudi Arabia

14.7

21.1

21.6

+ 2.0

+ 47.0

Asia

3.1

5.9

6.1

+ 3.4

+ 97.2

China

3.5

10.4

10.8

+ 3.5

+ 205.4

South Korea

7.6

13.2

13.7

+ 3.7

+ 80.4

India

1.6

2.5

2.7

+ 6.9

+ 66.9

Japan

10.7

9.1

9.4

+ 3.1

- 11.8

Oceania

10.9

8.4

8.3

- 1.4

- 24.0

Annex I countries (see glossary)

16.0

11.2

11.7

+ 4.4

- 26.5

Non-Annex I countries

3.3

5.3

5.4

+ 2.9

+ 65.3

World

6.3

6.5

6.7

+ 3.3

+ 6.3

Note: these are the GHG emissions of an area divided by its population. The emissions caused on average by an inhabitant's consumption are covered by a different approach (footprint approach, see p. 65).
Sources: SDES, based on EDGAR, 2022; World Bank, 2023

In 2021, global GHG emissions averaged 6.7 t CO2 eq per capita, up on 2020 (+3.3%) but below 2019 (-1. 2%). While population growth remains close to the previous year's level (+0. 8%), global emissions are rising sharply against a backdrop of recovering economic activity (+4.2%).

Per capita emissions show significant geographical disparities, with low levels in Latin America (5.5), India (2.7) and sub-Saharan Africa (2). Average emissions in the European Union (8.1) are higher, though lower than in the United States (17.5), Canada (19.4), Russia (17.9) and China (10.8). French emissions (6.3) are slightly below the world average.

Worldwide per capita GHG emissions between 1990 and 2021

Sources: SDES, based on EDGAR, 2022; World Bank, 2023

In 2021, worldwide per capita emissions were 6.3% higher than in 1990. Developed countries and countries in transition (Annex I countries, see glossary) have higher average emissions (11.7 t CO2 eq/capita in 2021), but these have been falling over the last 30 years (-26.5% since 1990). The other countries have emissions 2.2 times lower on average (5.4 t CO2 eq/capita), but they have risen sharply since 1990 (+65.3%).

In detail, per capita emissions in Asia rose by 97% between 1990 and 2021 (+205% in China,+67 in India, but-12 in Japan). Over the same period, per capita emissions fell by 54% in the United Kingdom, 32% in the European Union (including-34% in France and-40% in Germany), and 30% in the United States. In sub-Saharan Africa, strong population growth has led to a 17% drop in per-capita emissions compared with 1990, keeping them at a low level (2 t CO2 eq/capita in 2021).

Worldwide GHG emissions relative to GDP (excluding LULUCF)

In t CO2 eq/million $2017 PPP

1990

2020

2021

2020-2021 change (%)

1990-2021 change (%)

North America

589

291

287

- 1.6

- 51.3

Canada

608

414

403

- 2.7

- 33.7

United States

614

279

275

- 1.5

- 55.2

America

541

409

400

- 2.2

- 26.1

Brazil

448

431

435

+ 1.0

- 2.7

Europe and former USSR

261

120

118

- 1.7

- 54.9

EU 27

416

185

184

- 0.5

- 55.8

Germany

424

172

176

+ 2.2

- 58.5

Spain

279

168

170

+ 1.3

- 39.0

France

283

142

141

- 1.1

- 50.2

Italy

256

160

159

- 0.9

- 38.0

Poland

1,211

318

315

- 0.9

- 74.0

United Kingdom

435

145

139

- 3.7

- 67.9

Russia

972

617

625

+ 1.3

- 35.7

Sub-Saharan Africa

816

545

537

- 1.5

- 34.2

Middle East and North Africa

555

443

437

- 1.4

- 21.3

Saudi Arabia

348

472

463

- 2.0

+ 33.0

Asia

846

496

479

- 2.5

- 43.3

China

2,486

641

612

- 4.5

-75.4

South Korea

600

312

310

- 0.6

- 48.4

India

897

413

408

- 1.2

- 54.5

Japan

324

228

229

+ 0.5

- 29.4

Oceania

396

206

198

- 3.6

- 49.9

Annex I countries (see glossary)

548

270

267

- 0.9

- 51.2

Non-Annex I countries

814

489

476

- 2.7

- 41.5

World

646

398

391

- 1.9

- 39.5

Note: GDP in volume, converted into US dollars at purchasing power parity (PPP), for 2017 (see glossary).
Sources: SDES, based on EDGAR, 2022; World Bank, 2023

Although less dispersed than per-capita emissions levels, emissions-to-GDP ratios vary widely between countries, around a global average of 391 t CO2 eq/million $. Some of the highest values are reached in China (612 t CO2 eq/million $) and Russia (625). Conversely, levels are much lower in Japan (229), the United States (275) and the European Union (184), particularly France (141).

Worldwide GHG emissions relative to GDP between 1990 and 2021

Sources: SDES, based on EDGAR, 2022; World Bank, 2023

Between 2020 and 2021, the quantity of GHGs emitted per unit of GDP worldwide fell by 1.9%, a rate equivalent to that observed on average over the last ten years (- 2%). In a context of recovery from the health crisis, this decline can be explained by slower growth in emissions (+4.2%) than in GDP (+6% in 2021).

Since 1990, the quantity of GHGs emitted per unit of GDP has fallen by more than a third (-40%) worldwide, while GDP itself has increased by a factor of 2.6. With a few rare exceptions, the majority of the world's economies are concerned by this drop in the GHG intensity of wealth production. The reduction is most pronounced in China (-75%), a country with a particularly high historical level. Intensity has also been halved in the European Union (-56%) and the United States (-55%).