Key figures on climate
France, Europe and Worldwide

Sectorial focus: electricity, transport and LULUCF

CO2 emissions to produce 1 kWh of electricity in the EU

Note: cogeneration and autoproducers are included.
Source: SDES, based on IEA, 2023

Since 1990, CO2 emissions for the production of 1 kWh of electricity have fallen by 51.4% in the European Union, to 264 g CO2 /kWh in 2021. Although this trend can be seen in almost all EU countries, emission levels vary widely. Emissions are high in countries where the coal industry is still important, such as Germany (384 g CO2 /kWh) or, even more so, Poland (748 g CO2 /kWh). Conversely, they are lower in countries that have developed nuclear and/or renewable energies, such as France (mainly nuclear, 60 g CO2 /kWh) or Sweden (mainly renewables, 34 g CO2 /kWh).

GHG emissions from transport in the EU-27

Note: emissions from international transport (including between two EU-27 countries) by sea and by air are excluded from the totals presented on p. 44.
Source: UNFCCC format - EEA, 2023

GHG emissions from transport rose by 16.3% between 1990 and 2021 (excluding international transport). This growth is due to the increase in road traffic. Emissions caused by this mode increased by 20.6% over the same period, while those linked to other modes decreased (-26.5% for sea and river transport,-17% for air transport,-70.8% for rail transport). The majority of member countries saw their transport-related emissions rise, albeit very unevenly, e.g. +229.5% for Poland,+113.7% for Ireland,+45.8% for Spain. Other countries, such as France and Italy, are stagnating, and a few are falling, notably Germany (-10. 2%) and Sweden (-23%).

Including international transport, the increase in transport-related GHG emissions between 1990 and 2021 is 18.4%, with emissions from international air and sea traffic rising faster than those from domestic transport: +28.9% for air and+26.4% for sea.

GHG emissions from LULUCF in the EU-27

Source: UNFCCC format - EEA, 2023

Total emissions from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) are negative in the European Union, meaning that LULUCF sequesters more GHGs than it emits. This result is mainly due to the growth of forests, while the urbanization of land and the cultivation of grasslands contribute to increasing emissions.